Topic: Mechanisms
Duration
Topic/Skills
Specific Instructional Objectives
Students to be able to:
Suggested Activities
Resources
Techology Use in T&L
2 periods
  • Mechanisms in Everyday Lives
  • Mechanical Systems
  • Types of Movement
  • Understand and apply simple mechanisms in their daily lives
  • Explain the systems approach to mechanisms and control by highlighting the INPUT, PROCESS and OUTPUT components
Practical Demo:
  • Demonstration on the various toys or products (or video clips) that portray the various types of mechanisms.
  • Show difference between open and close loop systems
  • Using collaborative tools: Mindmeister to brainstorm on simple applications of Mechanisms
  • Students will be broken up into smaller groups of 4 each to brainstorm on simple applications of Mechanims, and presented. Ideas will be collated to create awareness and to create awareness amongst students on the classification of Mechanisms
  • Students will then be able to apply this classification into all the mechanisms that they see
  • Introduce to them everyday contraptions that they can see, use and apply in order to scaffold their understanding of Mechanisms (classification, how 2 or more different types of mechanisms can work together, etc)

1-2 periods
  • Functions of Mechanisms
  • Mechanical Advantage
  • Explain the 6 basic functions of mechanical systems
  • Understand and apply mechanical advantage (MA) concepts

SST's Goals:
Creative and Critical Thinkers

  • Use examples/ questions to highlight importance of Mechanical Advantage
  • Use examples to calculate MA
  • Slides
  • Worksheet using Phun
  • Mechanism Toys (Gigo toys)
  • Introduction to Phun: Students to use Phun to illustrate the 6 basic functions of mechanical systems - based from their previous lesson; use screenshots to upload to online sharing platform (e.g. Blog)
  • Simple class demo on what MA is all about: Using MA to lift heavier objects, drawing examples from machines like cranes and lever systems. Gigo toys are also used to deepen their understanding further.
  • Using Phun to describe how MA can also be used. By changing parameters like length of lever and mass used, students would be able to make immediate comparisons of what happens when parameters are changed.
  • In groups, students will then use Phun to create examples in which MA is used; uploaded to online platform as a means to invite comments on their final design/s
2-3 periods
  • Mechanical Control: Levers, Linkages, Pulleys
  • Understand and apply the components used in mechanical systems: cable, lever, linkages and pulleys
  • Explain and give examples of the 3 classes of levers
  • Explain and use in simple calculations the terms load, effort and fulcrum
  • Carry out simple calculations of moments of forces applied and mechanical advantage

SST's Goals:
Creative and Critical Thinkers

  • Use examples or quizzes to highlight the practical applications
  • Exercises on questions that involves (a) simple use of forces
  • Video on Principle of Moments
  • Bicycles and everyday contraptions to illustrate the mechanical concepts
  • Students to use Phun in a game: Who can design a machine that can destroy a brickwall
  • Students will first explore further the various tools and parameters that they can play around with in order to see the changes immediately
  • In the 'Brick' game and in groups of 2, students are given a scenario to break down a wall, using a contraption that uses a minimum of at least 2 previous basic sub-mechanisms that they have learned earlier
  • Idea here is 2-fold: Students would learn about the critical changes (e.g. lever length, using elastic properties of materials, changing mass of objects, etc) that they have to make in order to achieve the desired intent (breaking down the walls). Students would also be able to think creatively (how to ensure 2 different mechanical contraptions can work) in order to realise the desired outcomes
* A sample photo:phun_080212_0001.png
  • Homework: In groups of 2's, create short clips that best illustrate any one of the 3 types of control system in everyday applications: Cable control, hydraulic control and pneumatic control;
2-3 periods
  • Cable Control
  • Hydraulic Control
  • Pneumatic Control
  • Understand and apply the various types of control systems, namely, cable control, hydraulic control and pneumatic control
  • Justify the use of cable controls in mechanisms
  • Understand and apply hydraulic controls in relevant situations and varying motion requirements
  • Apply concept and calculation of mechanical advantage (MA)
  • Understand and apply pneumatic control in relevant situations and varying motion requirements
  • Understand and apply calculations involving pressure
  • Understand simple pneumatic systems
Use typical examples or questions to highlight how to calculate MA and apply the three types of controls: Cable, Hydraulic and Pneumatics
  • Use of Mechanisms Teaching aid - Pneumatic Toy kit
  • Bicycles and everyday contraptions to illustrate the mechanical concepts
  • Create and present short clips (either video or series of photos) that best illustrate any one of the 3 types of control system in every day applications : Cable control, hydraulic control and pneumatic control; suggestion is to refer to everyday contraptions and items
  • E.g. Cable control:
    cable.jpg
    Using cable for controlling ailerons
  • The idea and necessity of using clips is that more often than not, it is not sufficient to just show a single picture to illustrate mechanical concepts. A series of pictures would be more justified. Everyday contraptions are encouraged as these would enable students to relate to real-world applications, and thus deepen their understanding further (Applied Learning)